Preparation Checklist for Sociology Papers

This checklist is intended to help you prepare your manuscript ASA format. It covers some details of presentation and style that will be checked by your instructor. Paying attention to these details now may help your grade. So please address all items on this list. This list has been edited from the American Sociological Association Style Guide (2d ed.), available from the ASA Executive Office, 1722 N Street NW, Washington, DC 20036 ($5 for ASA members; $ 1 0 for nonmembers) or via the internet at



! All pages must be typed or printed (12-point type size preferred), double-spaced (including footnotes and references) on 8-1/2 by I I inch white paper.

! Margins must be at least I- 1 /4 inches on all four sides to allow room for Editor's or copy editor's notes.



! Includes the full title of the article, the author(s)"s name(s) and institutions (listed vertically if there is more than one author), a running head (60 characters or less), the approximate word count for the manuscript, and a title footnote.

! An asterisk (*) by the title refers to the title footnote at the bottom of the title page. The title footnote includes the name and address of the corresponding author, acknowledgments, credits, and/or grant numbers.



! The abstract appears on a separate page headed by the title. It should be a brief (one paragraph of 150 to 200 words) and descriptive summary of the most important contributions in your paper.



! Content. As you make changes in your text, read it objectively from your reader's point of view. Use terminology consistently throughout your text. Referring to a variable by one name at one time and by another name later or in your tables can confuse your readers. And remember, "active" writing ("I discovered that . . .") is more concise, accurate, and interesting than "passive" writing ("It was discovered that...").

! Subheadings. Generally, three levels of subheadings are sufficient to indicate the organization of the content. See recent issues of the ASR for subheading formats.

! Text citations. Include the last name of the author and year of publication. Include page numbers when you quote directly from a work or refer to specific passages. Cite only those that provide evidence for your assertions or that guide readers to important sources on your topic. Examples follow:

! Equations. Equations in the text should be typed or printed. Use consecutive Arabic numerals in parentheses at the right margin to identify important equations. Align all expressions and clearly mark compound subscripts and superscripts. Please clarify all unusual characters or symbols. Use italic type for variables in equations and in the text; use bold type for vectors.



! Use footnotes/endnotes only when necessary. Notes, in general, and long notes, in particular, distract the reader and are expensive to print. As alternatives, consider (a) stating in the text that information is available from the author, or (b) adding an appendix.

! Notes should be typed or printed, double-spaced, either as footnotes at the bottom of the page or in a separate "ENDNOTES" section following the references.


! All references cited in the text must be listed in the reference list, and vice versa. Double check spelling and publication details-ASA journals are not responsible for the accuracy of your reference list.

! List references in alphabetical order by authors" last names. Include full names of all authors-use firstname initials only if the author used initials in the original publication.

A few examples follow. See recent issues of any ASA journal for further examples:


Bernard, Claude. 11 8651 1957. An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine. Translated by H@ C. Greene. New York: Dover.

Mason, Karen 0. 1974. Women's Labor Force Participation and Fertility. Research Triangle Park, NC: National Institutes of Health.

U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1960. Characteristics of Population. Vol. 1. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.



Conger, Rand D. Forthcoming. "The Effects of Positive Feed back on Direction and Amount of Verbalization in a Social Setting." Sociological Perspectives.

Goodman, Leo A. 1947a. "The Analysis of Systems of Qualitative Variables When Some of the Variables Are Unobservable. Part I-A Modified Latent Structure Approach." American Journal of Sociology 79:1179-1259.

_____. 1947b. "Exploratory Latent Structure Analysis Using Both Identifiable and Unidentifiable Models." Biometrika 61:215-31.



Clausen, John A. 1972. "The Life Course of Individuals," Pp. 457-514 in Aging and Society, vol. 3, A Sociology of Age Stratification, edited by M. W, Riley, M, Johnson, and A. Foner. New York: Russell Sage.

Elder, Glen H. 1975. "Age Differentiation and the Life Course." Pp. 165-90 in Annual Review of Sociology, vol. 1, edited by A. Inkeles, J. Coleman, and N. Smelser. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.



Charles, Maria. 1990. "Occupational Sex Segregation: A Log-Linear Analysis of Patterns in 25 Industrial Countries." Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Sociology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA,

Machine Readable Data File

American Institute of Public Opinion. 1976. Gallup Public Opinion Poll #965 [MRDFI. Princeton, NJ-, American Institute of Public Opinion producer. New Haven, CT: Roper Public Opinion Reseaxch Center, Yale University Idistribu torl.


Foreign Language Books/Journals/Articles

Kardelj, Edvard. 1960. Razvoj Slovenackog Nacionalnog Pitanja (Development of the Slovenian National Question). Beograd, Yugoslavia: Kultura.



Include tables, figures, and appendices only when they are critical to the reader's understanding. As an alternative, consider inserting a statement in the text stating that the information is available from the author.


! Number tables consecutively throughout the text. Type or print each table on a separate page at the end of your paper. Insert a note in the text to indicate table placement (e.g., "TABLE 2 ABOUT HERE").

! Each table must include a descriptive title and headings for all columns and rows (see recent ASA journal issues for examples).

! For clarity, always use the same variable names in your tables as you use in your text.

! Standard errors, standard deviations, t-statistics, and so on, should appear in parentheses under the means or coefficients in the tables.

! Gather general notes to tables as "Note:" or "Notes:" at the bottom of the table; use a, b, c, etc.., for table footnotes.

! Use asterisks", ", and/or *" to indicate statistical significance at the p < .05, p < .0 1, and p < .00 I levels, respectively; note if tests are one-tailed or two-tailed. Generally, only those results significant at the p < .05 level or better should be indicated as significant in tables or text.

Figures and Other Artwork

! Number figures or illustrations consecutively throughout the text. Each should include a title. Insert a note in the text to indicate placement (e.g., "FIGURE 1 ABOUT HERE"").

! If your manuscript is accepted for publication, you must submit figures and illustrations in Camera-ready form or on floppy disk. Camera-ready artwork must be produced by computer or by a graphic artist in black ink on white paper with clear lines. All labels on figures and illustrations must be typeset.

! IMPORTANT: Before you submit a figure or illustration for publication, please contact the journal editorial office to discuss size specifications and/or disk and file formats. All artwork and type must be legible when reduced or enlarged to fit one or two column widths, 2-9/16 and 5-5/16 inches wide respectively (standard column widths for ASA journals).



! Appendices appear at the end of your article and should be labeled "Appendix A," "Appendix B," etc.


! When you have completed the final changes to your manuscript, run your computer spell-checker to correct misspelled words. You can also use the spell-checker to CFO -check author names cited in your text with author names in the reference list.